Performance of Centropomus parallelus fingerlings fed a diet supplemented with citrate and acetate

  • Bruno Corrêa da SILVA Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e Extensão Rural de Santa Catarina, Centro de Desenvolvimento em Aquicultura e Pesca
  • Scheila DUTRA-MOURIÑO Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Aquicultura
  • José Luiz P. MOURIÑO Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Aquicultura
  • Cristina CARVALHO Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Aquicultura
  • Vinicius Ronzani CERQUEIRA Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Aquicultura


This study aimed to evaluate the addition of sodium acetate and sodium citrate in the diets of fingerling fat snook (Centropomus parallelus), through growth performance and modification of the intestinal microbiota. In the experiment, 3,000 fat snook fingerlings were used, with an initial average weight of 0.57 ± 0.10 g. The fish were stocked into 12 tanks (50 L) at a density of 5 fingerlings L-1 per tank distributed in three treatments with four replicates. The treatments were as follows: control group (without supplementation), one group supplemented with sodium acetate, and another group supplemented with sodium citrate. The diets supplemented with organic salts were sprayed with cod liver oil previously homogenized with 3% sodium acetate or sodium citrate. The fish supplemented with sodium acetate showed higher final weight, length, and yield, compared with the control group fish. The intestine of fingerling fat snook showed lower counts of total heterotrophic marine bacteria in the fish supplemented with acetate and citrate in relation to fish of the control group. Lower counts of sucrose non-fermenting vibrios were also observed in fish supplemented with acetate. Through this study, it was possible to evaluate for the first time the dietary inclusion of organic salts in the diets of marine fish in Brazil, with the dietary inclusion of 3% sodium acetate showing benefits for performance of fingerling fat snook.


ALVAREZ‐LAJONCHERE, L.; CERQUEIRA, V.R.; SILVA, I.D.; ARAUJO, J.; REIS, M. 2002 Mass production of juveniles of the fat snook Centropomus parallelus in Brazil. Journal of World Aquaculture Society, 33: 506-516.

ANUTA, D,J.; BUENTELLO, A..; PATNAIK, S.; LAWRENCE, A.L.; MUSTAFA, A.; HUME M. 2011 Effect of dietary supplementation of acidic calcium sulfate (Vitoxal) on growth, survival, immune response and gut microbiota of the
pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Journal of World Aquaculture Society, 42: 834-844.

AMERICAN PUBLIC HEALTH ASSOCIATION (APHA). 1995 Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, and Water Pollution Control Federation.19th edition, Washington, D.C.

BARBOSA, M.C.; JATOBÁ, A.; VIEIRA, F.N.; SILVA, B.C.; MOURINO, J.L.P.; ANDREATTA, E.R. 2011 Cultivation of juvenile fat snook (Centropomus parallelus Poey, 1860) fed probiotic in laboratory conditions. Brazilian Archive Biology and Technology, 54: 795-801.

BARUAH, K.; PAUL, A.K.; SAHU, N.P.; JAIN, K.K.; MUKHERJEE, S.C.; DEBNATH, D. 2005 Dietary protein level, microbial phytase, citric acid and their interactions on bone mineralization of Labeorohita (Hamilton) juveniles. Aquaculture Research, 36: 803–812.

BARUAH, K.; SAHU, N.P. PAL, A.K.; DEBNATH, D.; YENGKOKPAM, S.; MUKHERJEE, S.C. 2007 Interactions of dietary microbial phytase, citric acid and crude protein level on mineral utilization by rohu, Labeorohita (Hamilton), juveniles. Journal of World Aquaculture Society, 38: 238–249.

CERQUEIRA, V.R. and BRÜGGER, A.M. 2001 Effect of light intensity on initial survival of fat snook (Centropomus parallelus, Pisces: Centropomidae) larvae. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 44: 343-349.

CERQUEIRA, V.R. 2002 Cultivo do Robalo: aspectos da reprodução, larvicultura e engorda. Florianópolis: UFSC-Ed. 94p.

CERQUEIRA, V.R. 2004 Cultivo de peixes marinhos. In: Poli CR, Poli ATB, Andreatta E, Beltrame E (Orgs). AQUICULTURA - Experiências brasileiras. Florianópolis: Multitarefa Editora LTDA. p.369-406.

CERQUEIRA, V.R.; MIOSO, R.; CANARIN, M. 2005 Indução de desova com fertilização natural e artificial e incubação de ovos do robalo-peva (Centropomus parallelus). Atlântica, 27: 31-38.

CERQUEIRA, V.R. 2010 Cultivo do robalo-peva (Centropomus parallelus). In: Baldisserotto B, Gomes LC (Orgs.). Espécies nativas para piscicultura no Brasil. 2ª Edição Revista e Ampliada. Santa Maria: UFSM. p. 489-520.

CERVIGÓN, F.; CIPRIANI, R.; FISCHER, W.; GARIBALDI, L.; HENDRICK, M.; LEMUS, A.J. 1992 Fichas FAO de identificación de especies para los fines de la pesca. Guía De Campo De Las Especies Comerciales Marinas Y De Aguas Salobres De La Costa Septentrional De Sur América. FAO, Rome, Italy.

CORRÊA, C.F. and CERQUEIRA, V.R. 2007 Effects of stocking density and size distribution on growth, survival and cannibalism in juvenile fat snook (Centropomus parallelus, Poey). Aquaculture Research, 38: 1627-1634.

DEFOIRDT, T.; HALET, D.; SORGELOOS, P.; BOSSIER, P.; VERSTRAETE, W. 2006 Shortchain fatty acids protect gnotobiotic Artemia franciscana from pathogenic Vibrio campbellii. Aquaculture, 261: 804–808.

DEFOIRDT, T.; HALET, D.; VERVAEREN, H.; BOON, N.; WIELE, T.V.; SORGELOOS, P. 2007 The bacterial storage compound poly-bhydroxybutyrate protects Artemia franciscana from pathogenic Vibrio campbellii. Environmental Microbiology, 9: 445–452.

DEFOIRDT, T.; BOON, N.; SORGELOOS, P.; VERSTRAETE, W.; BOSSIER, P. 2009 Shortchain fatty acids and poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates: (New) Biocontrol agents for a sustainable animal production. Biotechnology Advances, 27: 680–685.

DEFOIRDT, T.; SORGELOOS, P.; BOSSIER, P. 2011 Alternatives to antibiotics for the control of bacterial disease in aquaculture. Current Opinion in Microbiology, 14: 251-258.

FERRAZ, E.; CERQUEIRA, V.R.; ALVAREZLAJONCHÈRE, L.; CANDIDO, S. 2002 Indução da desova do robalo-peva, Centropomus parallelus, através de injeção e implante de LHRHa. Boletim do Instituto de Pesca, 28: 125-133.

KHAJEPOUR, F. and HOSSEINI, S.A. 2012 Calcium and phosphorus status in juvenile beluga (Husohuso) fed citric acid-supplemented diets. Aquaculture Research, 43: 407–411.

KIRSCHBAUM, A.A.; SERIANI, R.; PEREIRA, C.D.; ASSUNÇÃO, A.; ABESSA, D.M.D.; ROTUNDO, M.M. 2009 Cytogenotoxicity biomarkers in fat snook Centropomus parallelus from Cananéia and São Vicente estuaries, SP, Brazil. Genetic and Molecular Biology, 32(1): 151-154.

LABELLA, A.; BERBEL, C.; MANCHADO, M.; CASTRO, D.; BORREGO, J. J. 2011 Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, an emerging pathogen affecting new cultured marine fish species in southern Spain. In: Recent
Advances in Fish Farms. p. 135-152.

LIU, Y.; SCHRYVER, P., VAN DELSEN, B.; MAIGNIEN, L.; BOON, N.; SORGELOOS, P. 2010 PHB-degrading bacteria isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of aquatic animals as protective actors against luminescent vibriosis. Microbiolgy and Ecology, 74: 196–204.

LÓPEZ, J.R.; NAVAS, J.I.; THANANTONG, N.; DE LA HERRAN, R.; SPARAGANO, O.A.E. 2012 Simultaneous identification of five marine fish pathogens belonging to the genera Tenacibaculum, Vibrio, Photobacterium and Pseudomonas by reverse line blot hybridization. Aquaculture, 324: 33-38.

LÜCKSTÄDTS, C. 2007 The use of acidifiers in fisheries and aquaculture, In: Lückstädts, C.
(Ed). Acidifiers in Animal Nutrition: A Guide to Feed Preservation and Acidification to Promote Animal Performance. Nottingham University Press, United Kingdom. p. 71–79.

LÜCKSTÄDT, C. 2008 The use of acidifiers in fish nutrition. CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science Nutrition Natural Resources, 3(44): 1–8.

MAUGERI, T.M.; CACCAMO, D.; GUGLIANDOLO C. 2000 Potentially pathogenic vibrios in brackish waters and mussels. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 89: 261-266.

MINE, S. and BOOPATHY, R. 2011 Effect of organic acids on shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi. Current Microbiology, 63(1): 1–7.

MORKEN, T.; KRAUGERUD, O.F.; BARROWS, F.T.; SØRENSEN, M.; STOREBAKKEN, T.; ØVERLAND, M. 2011 Sodium diformateand extrusion temperature affects nutrient digestibility and physical quality of diets with fish meal and barley protein concentrate for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture, 317(1-4): 138-145.

NG, W-K.; KOH, C.B.; SUDESH, K.; SITI‐ZAHRAH A. 2009 Effects of dietary organic acids on growth, nutrient digestibility and gut microflora of red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis sp., and subsequent survival during a challenge test with Streptococcus agalactiae. Aquaculture Research, 40(13): 1490-1500.

NG, W-K. and KOH, C.B. 2011 Application of organic acids in aquafeeds: impacts on fish growth, nutrient utilization and disease resistance. In: Lückstädt, C. (Ed.), Standards for Acidifiers, Principles for the Use of Organic Acids in Animal Nutrition. Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, United Kingdom. p.49–58.

NHAN, T.D.; WILLE, M.; SCHRYVER, P.; DEFOIRDT, T.; BOSSIER, P.; SORGELOOS, P. 2010 The effect of poly β-hydroxybuty rate on larviculture of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Aquaculture, 302: 76-81.

OSORIO, C.R.; TORANZO, A.E.; ROMALDE, J.L.; BARJA, J.L. 2000 Photobacterium damselae. Disease Aquatic Organism, 40: 177-183.

OSTINI, S.; OLIVEIRA, I.D.R.; SERRALHEIRO, P.C.D.; GOMES SANCHES, E. 2007 Criação do robalo-peva (Centropomus parallelus) submetido a diferentes densidades de estocagem. Revista Brasileira Saúde Produção Animal, 8(3): 250-257.

RINGO, E. 1991 Effects of dietary lactate and propionate on growth and digesta in Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpines (L.). Aquaculture, 96: 321– 333.

RINGO, E.; OLSEN, R.E.; CASTELL, J.D. 1994 Effect of dietary lactate on growth and chemical composition of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpines. Journal of World Aquaculture Society, 25(3): 483–486.

ROCHA, A.J.; GOMES, V.; VAN NGAN, P.; DE ARRUDA CAMPOS ROCHA PASSOS, M.J.; RIOS-FURIA, R. 2005 Metabolic demand and growth of juveniles of Centropomus parallelus as function of salinity. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 316(2): 157-165.

SARKER, S.A.; SATOH, S.; KIRON, V. 2005 Supplementation of citric acid and amino acidchelated trace element to develop environmentfriendly feed for red sea bream, Pagrus major. Aquaculture, 248: 3–11.

SARKER, M.S.A.; SATOH, S.; KAMATA, K.; HAGA, Y.; YAMAMOTO, Y. 2012a Partial replacement of fish meal with plant protein sources using organic acids to practical diets for juvenile yellowtail, Seriola quinqueradiata. Aquaculture
Nutrition, 18(1): 81-89.

SARKER, M.S.A.; SATOH, S.; KAMATA, K.; HAGA, Y.; YAMAMOTO, Y. 2012b Supplementation effect(s) of organic acids and/or lipid to plant protein-based diets on juvenile yellowtail, Seriola quinqueradiata Temminck et Schlegel 1845,
growth and, nitrogen and phosphorus excretion. Aquaculture Research, 43: 538–545.

SCHRYVER, P.; SINHA, A.K.; KUNWAR, P.S.; BARUAH, K.; VERSTRAETE, W.; BOON, N. 2010 Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) increases growth performance and intestinal bacterial range-weighted richness in juvenile European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 86: 1535–1541.

SOUZA, R.M.; MOURIÑO, J.L.; VIEIRA, F.; BUGLIONE, C.C.; ANDREATTA, E.R.; SEIFFERT, W.Q. 2010 Seleção de bactéria com potencial probiótico e utilização no cultivo de robalo-peva (Centropomus parallelus Poey, 1860). Boletim do Instituto de Pesca, 36(1): 17-24.

TEMPLE, S.; CERQUEIRA, V.R.; Brown, J.A. 2004 The effects of lowering prey density on the growth, survival and foraging behaviour of larval fat snook (Centropomus parallelus Poey 1860). Aquaculture, 233(1): 205-217.

THUY, N.T.T., NGUYEN, D.H.; WERGELAND, H.I. 2013 Specific humoral immune response and protection against Vibrio parahaemolyticus in orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides. International Journal Aquatic Sciences, 4(2): 24-35.

TIBA, R.M., OLIVEIRA, I.R.; SERRALHEIRO, P.C.S.; OSTINI, S. 2009 Diluentes e proporções sêmen: diluente na crioconservação do sêmen do robalo-peva Centropomus parallelus. Boletim do Instituto de Pesca, 35(1): 99-110.

TONINI, W.C.T.; BRAGA, L.G.T.; VILA NOVA, D.L.D. 2007 Dieta de juvenis do robalo Centropomus parallelus POEY, 1860, no sul da Bahia, Brasil. Boletim do Instituto de Pesca, 33(1): 85-91.

TSUZUKI, M.Y.; SUGAI, J.K.; MACIEL, J.C.; FRANCISCO, C.J.; CERQUEIRA, V.R. 2007 Survival, growth and digestive enzyme activity of juveniles of the fat snook (Centropomus parallelus) reared at different salinities. Aquaculture, 271(1): 319-325.

VAZQUEZ, J.A.; GONZALEZ, M.P.; MURADO, M.A. 2005 Effects of lactic acid bacteria cultures on pathogenic microbiota from fish. Aquaculture, 245: 149–161.

VIELMA, J. and LALL, S.P. 1997 Dietary formic acid enhances apparent digestibility of minerals in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Aquaculture Nutrition, 3: 265–268.

WARD, P. and MYERS, R.A. 2005 Shifts in openocean fish communities coinciding with the commencement of commercial fishing. Ecology, 4(86): 835-847.

ZAR, J.H. 2010 Biostatistical analysis, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
How to Cite
SILVA, Bruno Corrêa da et al. Performance of Centropomus parallelus fingerlings fed a diet supplemented with citrate and acetate. Boletim do Instituto de Pesca, [S.l.], v. 42, n. 1, p. 65-72, mar. 2016. ISSN 1678-2305. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 13 aug. 2022. doi: