Egg incubation and larval rearing of piava, Leporinus obtusidens: effect of pH

  • Mário Augusto GOSMANN Laboratory of Freshwater Fish Biology and Cultivation, Aquaculture Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC)
  • Alex Pires de Oliveira NUÑER Laboratory of Freshwater Fish Biology and Cultivation, Aquaculture Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC)


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the pH of the water during Leporinus obtusidens egg incubation and larval rearing. During incubation of the eggs, pH 5.0, 7.0 and 9.0 were tested, being pH 7.0 produced the best results for fertilization rate, hatching, and weight of hatched larvae (29.62 ± 6.01%, 23.57 ± 2.81% and 0.63 ± 0.01 mg respectively). As pH 5.0 caused total mortality of eggs, the pH range was expanded in larval rearing that used pH 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0 and 9.0, observing that pH 5.0 and 6.0 were lethal to the larvae at 24 and 72 h respectively. At pH 9.0, higher survival (87.22 ± 3.47%) and final weight (3.82 ± 0.19 mg) were registered, whereas the final length of the larvae was the same (P>0.05) for pH 7.0, 8.0, and 9.0. Incubation at extreme pH values was harmful to the development of L. obtusidens eggs, while, at neutral pH (7.0), the best hatching rate and weight of hatched larvae were obtained. During larval rearing, the acidic pH was lethal to the larvae within just a few hours of exposure, whereas higher larvae survival and final weight were registered at pH 9.0.


BALDISSEROTTO, B. 2011 Water pH and hardness affect growth of freshwater teleost. Revista
Brasileira de Zootecnia, 40(suppl. especial): 138-144.

2009 Calcium fluxes in Hoplosternum littorale(tamoatá) exposed to different types of
Amazonian waters. Neotropical Ichthyology, 7(3):465-470.

BENTLEY, P.J. 1990 Unidirectional fluxes of Na+, Cland water in fingerling channel catfish, Ictalurus
punctatus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A: Physiology, 97(2): 195-199.

BLANKSMA, C.; EGUIA, B.; LOTT, K.;LAZORCHAK, J.M.; SMITH, M.E.;WRATSCHKO, M.; DAWSON, T.D.; ELONEN, C.; KAHL, M.; SCHOENFUSS, H.L. 2009 Effects of water hardness on skeletal development and growth in juvenile fathead minnows.Aquaculture, 286(3-4): 226-232.

BOLNER, K.C.S. and BALDISSEROTTO, B. 2007 Water pH and urinary excretion in silver catfish
Rhamdia quelen. Journal of Fish Biology, 70(1): 50-64.

BOYD, C.E. and TUCKER, C.S. 1998 Pond aquaculture water quality management. Boston: Kluwer
Academic Publishers, 700p.

COPATTI, C.E. and AMARAL, R. 2009 Osmorregulação em juvenis de piava, Leporinus obtusidens (Characiformes: Anostomidae),durante trocas do pH da água. Biodiversidade Pampeana, 7(1): 1-6.

DABROWSKI, K.R. 1986 Ontogenetical aspects of nutritional requirements in fish. Comparative
Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A: Physiology,85(4): 639-655.

FERREIRA, A.A.; NUÑER, A.P.O.; ESQUIVEL, J.R.2001 Influência do pH sobre ovos e larvas de jundiá, Rhamdia quelen (Osteichthyes,Siluriformes). Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences,23(2): 477-481.

GOLTERMAN, H.; CLYMO, R.S.; OHNSTAD, M.A.M. 1978 Methods for physical and chemical
analysis of fresh water. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications Ltd. 213p.

KOROLEFF, F. 1976 Determination of ammonia. In:GRASSHOF, K. Methods of seawater analysis.
Weinheim: Verlag Chemie. p.117-181.

LOPES, J.M.; SILVA, L.V.F.; BALDISSEROTTO, B.2001 Survival and growth of silver catfish larvae
exposed to different water pH. Aquaculture International, 9(1): 73-80.

MILLER, T.J.; CROWDER, L.B.; RICE, J.A.;MARSCHALL, E. 1988 Larval size and recruitment mechanisms in fishes: Toward a conceptual framework. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 45(9): 1657-1670.

PARRA, J.E.G. and BALDISSEROTTO, B. 2007 Effect of water pH and hardness on survival and
growth of freshwater teleosts. In:BALDISSEROTTO, B.; MANCERA, J.M.;KAPOOR, B.G. Fish osmoregulation. New Hampshire, USA: Science Publishers. p.135-150.

REYNALTE-TATAJE, D.A. and ZANIBONI FILHO, E. 2010 Cultivo de piapara, piava, piau - gênero
Leporinus. In: BALDISSEROTTO, B. and CARVALHO-GOMES, L. Espécies nativas para a
piscicultura no Brasil. Santa Maria, Brazil: UFSM.p.73-92.

REYNALTE-TATAJE, D.A.; ZANIBONI-FILHO, E.;MUELBERT, B. 2001 Stages of embryonic development of the piavuçu Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski, 1988). Acta
Scientiarum, 23(4): 823-827.

reproductive responses of the Neotropical Anostomid fish Leporinus elongatus Val. under
captive breeding. Aquaculture Research, 31(2):189-193.

SCOTT, D.M.L.M.C. and WILSON, R.W. 2005. The effect of high pH on ion balance, nitrogen
excretion and behaviour in freshwater fish from an eutrophic lake: a laboratory and field study.
Aquatic Toxicology, 73(1): 31-43.

SILVA, L.V.F.; GOLOMBIESKI, J.I.; BALDISSEROTTO,B. 2005 Growth and survival of silver catfish
larvae, Rhamdia quelen (Heptapteridae), at different calcium and magnesium concentrations. Neotropical Ichthyology, 3(2):299-304.

SPADE, S. and BRISTOW, B. 1999 Effects of increasing water hardness on egg diameter and
hatch rates of striped bass eggs. North American Journal of Aquaculture, 61(3): 263-265.

VARSAMOS, S.; NEBEL, C.; CHARMANTIER, G.2005 Ontogeny of osmoregulation in postembryonic fish: A review. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular &Integrative Physiology, 141(4): 401-429.

WETZEL, R.G. 2001 Limnology: lake and river ecosystems. Third ed. San Diego, USA: Academic
Press. 1006p.

ZAIONS, M.I. and BALDISSEROTTO, B. 2000 Na+and K+ body levels and survival of fingerlings of
Rhamdia quelen (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae)exposed to acute changes of water pH. Ciência
Rural, 30(6): 1041-1045.

ZANIBONI-FILHO, E. and BARBOSA N.D.C.1996 Priming hormone administration to induce spawning of some Brazilian migratory fish. Revista Brasileira de Biologia,56(4): 655-659.

and Prochilodus lineatus larvae survival. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 35(1): 151-155.

ZANIBONI FILHO, E. and SCHULZ; U.H. 2003 Migratory fishes of the Uruguay River. In: CAROLSFELD, J.; HARVEY, B.; ROSS, C.; BAER, A. Migratory fishes of South America: biology,
fisheries and conservation status. Victoria, Canada:World Fisheries Trust/World Bank/IDRC.
How to Cite
GOSMANN, Mário Augusto; NUÑER, Alex Pires de Oliveira. Egg incubation and larval rearing of piava, Leporinus obtusidens: effect of pH. Boletim do Instituto de Pesca, [S.l.], v. 41, n. 2, p. 319 - 326, july 2018. ISSN 1678-2305. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 13 aug. 2022.