Effects of astaxanthin on spawning performance of the scallop Nodipecten nodosus (Linnaeus, 1759)

  • Simone SÜHNEL Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Laboratório de Moluscos Marinhos / Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e Extensão Rural de Santa Catarina
  • Francisco José LAGREZE-SQUELLA Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR), Centro de Estudos do Mar http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0439-2980
  • Delano Dias SCHLEDER Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Laboratório de Imunologia Aplicada à Aquicultura http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1318-8298
  • Guilherme sabino RUPP Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e Extensão Rural de Santa Catarina
  • Aimê Rachel Magent MAGALHÃES Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Núcleo de Estudos em Patologia Aquícola http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3183-1734
  • Marcelo MARASCHIN Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Laboratório de Morfogênese e Bioquímica Vegeta http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4146-4835


In worldwide aquaculture, scallops are important bivalve mollusks with high economic and nutritional value. In many countries, scallop culture relies on seeds obtained from hatcheries. For this reason, broodstock conditioning is an important step for the production of spats. The experiment was conducted with an astaxanthin-enriched diet and a control diet. Accumulation of astaxanthin and sexual stage of the Nodipecten nodosus females gonads before and after spawning and larvae survival were evaluated. The astaxanthin-enriched diet showed a higher astaxanthin accumulation in the scallop gonad (18.73 ± 1.42 µg mL-1) and 100% of the animals in advanced pre-spawning stage before spawning. A positive effect on the spawning process of the scallop, as well as D-larvae (34.96 ± 1.55%) and pediveliger (4.28 ± 0.42%) survival for animals treated with astaxanthin-enriched diet was observed.


BORODINA, A.V.; MAOKA, T.; SOLDATOV, A.A.2013 Composition and content of carotenoids in
body of the black sea gastropod Rapana venosa (Valenviennes, 1846). Journal of Evolutionary
Biochemistry and Physiology, 49(3): 283-290.

CHANG, C.S.; CHANG, C.L.; LAI, G.H. 2013 Reactive oxygen species scavenging activities in
a chemiluminescence model and europrotection in rat pheochromocytoma cells by astaxanthin,
beta-carotene, and canthaxanthin. Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences, 29(8): 412-421.

CUZON, G.; LAWRENCE, A.; GAXIOLA, G.; ROSAS, C.; GUILLAUME, J. 2004 Nutrition of Litopenaeus vannamei reared in tanks or in ponds. Aquaculture, 235(1-4): 513-551.

CZECZUGA, B. 1980 Carotenoids in Ostrea edulis L. (Bivalvia: Ostreacea) from the lagoon of Venice
(Italy). Hydrobiologia, 68(3): 195-197.

ESCARRIA, S.; REYES, C.Y.; ROHAN, D. 1989 Estudio bioquímico de la escalopa Argopecten circularis. Ciencias Marinas, 15(1): 63-72.

GUILLARD, R.R.L. and LORENZEN, C.J. 1972 Yellow-green algae with chlorophyllid-c. Journal
of Phycology, 8(1): 10-14.

GOSTYUKHINA, O.L.; SOLDATOV, A.A.; GOLOVINA, I.V.; BORODINA, A.V. 2013 Content of carotenoids and the state of tissue antioxidant enzymatic complex in bivalve mollusc Anadara
inaequivalvis Br. Journal of Evolutionary Biochemistry and Physiology, 49(3): 309-315.

HAIRSTON, N.G. Jr. 1981 The interaction of salinity, predators, light and copepod color. Hydrobiology,81: 151-158.

HANSSON, L.A. 2000 Induced pigmentation in zooplanckton: A trade-off between threats from
predation and ultraviolet radiation. Proceeding of the Royal Society of London, B 267: 2327-2332.

HERTZBERG, S.; PARTALI, V.; LIAAEN-JENSEN, S. 1988 Animal Carotenoids. 32.* Carotenopids of
Mytilus edulis (Edible Mussel). Acta Chemistry Scandinavia, 42(8): 495-503.

HOWELL, B.K. and MATTHEWS, A.D. 1991 The carotenoids of wild and blue disease affected
farmed tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricus). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 98(2-3):375-379.

JOHNSON, E.A. and SCHROEDER, W.A. 1995 Microbial carotenoids. In: FIECHTER, A. (ed.)Advances Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology.Berlin: Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg. v.53,p.119–178.

FUJIWARA, Y.; MAOKA, T.; OOKUBO, M.; MATSUNO, T. 1992 Crassostreaxanthins A and B, novel marine carotenoids from the oyster Crassostrea gigas. Tetrahedron Letters, 33(34):4941-4944.

KOBAYASHI, M. and SAKAMOTO, Y. 1999 Singlet oxygen quenching ability of astaxanthin esters
from the green algae Haematococcus pluvialis. Biotechnology Letters, 21(4): 265–269.

LIÑÁN-CABELLO, M.A.; PANIAGUA-MICHEL, J.J.;HOPKINS, P.M. 2002 Bioactive roles of carotenoids and retinoids in crustaceans. Aquaculture Nutrition, 8(4): 299-309.

LORENZ, R.T. 1998 A review of the carotenoid, astaxanthin, as a pigment and vitamin source for
cultured Penaeus prawn. NatuRoseTM Technical Bulletin, nº 051. 7p. Available at: ruscom.com/cyan/web02/pdfs/naturose/axbul51.pdf> Access on: Nov. 2007.

LORENZ, R.T. 2000 Astaxanthin, Nature’s Super Carotenoid. BioAstinTM Technical Bulletin, nº
062. 19p. Available at: Access on: May

LORENZ, R.T. and CYSEQSKI, G.R. 2000 Commercial potential for Haematococcus microalgae as a natural source of astaxanthin. Trends in Biotechnology, 18(4): 160–167.

MANZONI, G.C.; POLI, C.R.; RUPP, G.S. 1996 Período reproductivo del pectínido Nodipecten
nodosus (Mollusca:Bivalvia) en los alrededores de la Isla Arvoredo (27º17’S – 48º22’W), Santa
Catarina, Brasil. In: ACUICULTURA EN LATINOAMÉRICA. CONGRESSO LATINOAMERICANO DE ACUICULTURA, 9.; SIMPOSIO AVANCES Y PERSPECTIVAS DE LA ACUICULTURA EN CHILE, 2., Coquimbo, 15-18/Oct./1996. Anais… Coquimbo: Asociación Latinoamericana de Acuicultura. p.197-201.

MAOKA, T. 2009 Sterically hindered carotenoids with 3Z, 5Z configuration from the seeds of
oriental bitter sweet, Celastrus orbiculatus.Phytochemistry, 70(7): 920-923.

MAOKA, T.; HASHIMOTO, K.; AKIMOTO, N.; FUJIWARA, Y. 2001 Structures of five new
carotenoids from the oyster Crassostrea gigas. Journal of Natural Products, 64(5): 578-581.

in clams, Ruditapes philippinarum and Meretrix petechialis. Journal Agricultural and Food
Chemistry, 58(9): 5784-5788.

MEYERS, P.S. 1994 Developments in world aquaculture, feed formulation and role of
carotenoids. Pure and Applied Chemistry, 66(5):1069-1076.

MIKI, W. 1991 Biological functions and activities of animal carotenoids. Pure and Applied Chemistry,63(1): 141-146.

MIKI, W.; YAMAGUCHI K.; KONOSU S. 1982 Comparison of carotenoids in the ovaries of
marine fish and shellfish. Comparative Biochemistry Physiology, 71(1): 7-11.

NIU, J.; WEN, H.; LI, C.H.; LIU, Y.J.; TIAN, L.X.; CHEN, X.; HUANG, Z.; LIN, H.Z. 2014 Comparison effect of dietary astaxanthin and βcarotene in the presence and absence of cholesterol supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and gene expression of Penaeus monodon under normoxia and hypoxia condition. Aquaculture, 422-423: 8-17.

PÉREZ-LÓPEZ, P.; GONZÁLEZ-GARCÍA, S.;JEFFRYES, C.; AGATHOS, S.N.; MCHUGH, E.;WALSH, D.; MURRAY, P.; MOANE, S.; FEIJOO,G.; MOREIRA M.T. 2014 Life cycle assessment of the production of the red antioxidant carotenoid astaxanthin by microalgae: from lab to pilot scale. Journal of Cleaner Production, 64: 332-344.

RONQUILLO, J.D.; FRASER, J.; MCCONKEY, A.J.2012 Effect of mixed microalgal diets on growth
and polyunsaturated fatty acid profile of European oyster (Ostrea edulis) juveniles.Aquaculture, 360-361: 64-68.

RUPP, G.S. 1994 Obtenção de reprodutores, indução à desova e cultivo larval e pós-larval de
Nodipecten nodosus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Bivalvia:Pectinidae). Florianópolis. 125p. (Master Degree Dissertation. Federal University of Santa Catarina).

RUPP, G.S.; VÉLEZ, A.; DE BEM, M.M.; POLI, C.R.1997 Effect of temperature on conditioning and
spawning of the tropical scallop Nodipecten nodosus (Linnaeus, 1758). In: INTERNATIONAL
PECTINID WORKSHOP, 11., México, 10-15/Apr./1997. Anais… La Paz: Centro Interdiciplinario de Ciencias Marinas. p.132-133.

RUPP, G.S.; THOMPSON, R.J.; PARSONS, G.J. 2004 Influence of food supply on postmetamorphic
growth and survival of hatchery-produced lion’s paw scallop, Nodipecten nodosus (Linnaeus, 1758).Journal of Shellfish Research, 23(1): 5-13.

SCHLEDER, D.D.; KAYSER, M.; SÜHNEL, S.;FERREIRA, J.F.; RUPP, G.S.; BARRACO, M.A. 2008 Evaluation of hemato-immunological parameters during the reproductive cycle of the
scallop Nodipecten nodosus in association with a carotenoid-enriched diet. Aquaculture, 280(1-4):

composition of carotenoids, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities in tissues of the
bivalve mollusc Anadara inaequivalvis (Bruguiere, 1789). Journal of Evolutionary Biochemistry and
Physiology, 49(4): 389-398.

SÜHNEL, S.; LAGREZE, F.; FERREIRA, J.F.;CAMPESTRINI, L.H.; MARASCHIN, M. 2009 Carotenoid extraction from the gonad of the scallop Nodipecten nodosus (Bivalvia; Pectinidae).Brazilian Journal of Biology, 69(1): 209-215.

MARASCHIN, M. 2010 Sexual stages of the female portion in the scallop Nodipecten nodosus
(Linné, 1758) and astaxanthin quantity in each stage. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 70(3): 651-658.

SÜHNEL, S.; LAGREZE, F.; ZANETTE, G.;MAGALHÃES, A.R.M.; FERREIRA, J.F. 2012 Effect of the fatty acid EPA and DHA in the conditioning of the scallop Nodipecten nodosus (Linné, 1758). Aquaculture, 330–333: 167–171.

SÜHNEL, S; LAGREZE, F.; PEREIRA, A.; DA SILVA,F.C.; GURNEY-SMITH, H.; BERCHT, M.; MARASCHIN M.; MAGALHÃES A.R.M.;FERREIRA, J.F. 2014 Effects of astaxanthin on reproductive success in the tropical scallop Nodipecten nodosus (Linnaeus, 1758). Journal of Shellfish Research, 33(1): 89-98.

TANAKA, Y. and KATAYAMA, T. 1979 Carotenoids in Sea Mussel, Mytilus edulis. Memoirs of Faculty
of Fisheries Kagoshima University, 28: 9-16.

TREMBLAYA, R.; CARTIERA, S.; MINERB, P.;PERNETC, F.; QUÉRÉB, C.; MOALB, J.; MUZELLECD, M.L.; MAZURETB, M.; SAMAIN,J.F. 2007 Effect of Rhodomonas salina addition to a standard hatchery diet during the early ontogeny of the scallop Pecten maximus. Aquaculture, 262(2-4): 410-418.

TSUSHIMA, M.; MAOKA, T.; MATSUNO, T. 2001 Structure of carotenoids with 5,6-dihydro-ß-end
group from the spindle shell Fusinus perplexus.Journal of Natural Products, 64(9): 1139–1142.

URIARTE, I.; RUPP, G.; ABARCA, A. 2001 Producción de juveniles de pectínidos Iberoamericanos bajo condiciones controladas. In: MAEDA-MARTINZ, A.N. (ed.) Los Moluscos Pectínidos de Iberoamérica: Ciencia y Acuicultura.Mexico: Limusa. p.147-171.

YAMASHITA, E. and MATSUNO, T.A. 1990 New apocarotenoid from the sea hare Aplysia kurodai.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B, 96(3):465–470.

ZAR, J.H. 1974 Biostatistical analysis. S.A.: PrenticeHall. 357p.

ZHENG, H.; LIU, H.; ZHANG, T.; WANG, S.; SUN,Z.; LIU, H.; LI, Y. 2010 Total carotenoid differences in scallop tissues of Chlamys nobilis (Bivalve: Pectinidae) with regard to gender and shell colour. Food Chemistry, 122(4): 1164-1167.

ZHENG, H.; LIU, H.; LIU, W.; SUN, Z.; ZHANG, Q. 2012 Changes of total carotenoid and lipid content in scallop tissues of Chlamys nobilis (Bivalve: Pectinidae) during gonad maturation.Aquaculture, 342-343: 7-12.
How to Cite
SÜHNEL, Simone et al. Effects of astaxanthin on spawning performance of the scallop Nodipecten nodosus (Linnaeus, 1759). Boletim do Instituto de Pesca, [S.l.], v. 41, n. 2, p. 345 - 354, july 2018. ISSN 1678-2305. Available at: <https://pesca.sp.gov.br/boletim/index.php/bip/article/view/41_2_345-354>. Date accessed: 12 aug. 2022.