The use of eugenol in bettas: a study of different concentrations and successive administrations

  • Thiago El Hadi Perez FABREGAT Centro de Ciências Agroveterinárias, Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC)
  • Manuela Martins PEREIRA Centro de Ciências Agroveterinárias, Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC)
  • Toshiro Barreto ASSAHINA Centro de Ciências Agroveterinárias, Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC)
  • José Augusto BROGGI Centro de Ciências Agroveterinárias, Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC)


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations and successive administrations of eugenol on the anesthetic response in bettas (Betta splendens). Two experiments were conducted. In the first trial, the fish were exposed to different concentrations of eugenol (70.0, 87.5, 105.0, 122.5 e 140.0 mg L-1). Only one concentration of anesthetic was evaluated in the second experiment (140.0 mg L-1), which was applied for three successive days. In the first experiment, the increase of the concentration of the eugenol reduced the time to induce total anesthesia. In the second experiment, the time to induce total anesthesia was longer on the third day as compared to the first day. It is possible to conclude that an increase in the concentration of eugenol accelerated the anesthetic response in the bettas, though without affecting the recovery. The concentration of 140.0 mg L-1 is the most recommended for the handling of bettas.


ANDERSON, W.G.; MCKINLEY, R.S.;COLVECCHIA, M. 1997 The use of clove oil as an anaesthetic for rainbow trout and its effects on swimming performance. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 17(2): 301-307.

Benzocaína e eugenol como anestésicos para o quinguio (Carassius auratus). Arquivos Brasileiros
de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, 64(6): 1597-1602.

BOYD, C.E. 2000 Water quality: an introduction. Massachusetts: Klumer Academic Press. 330p.
DELBON, M.C. e RANZANI-PAIVA, M.J.T. 2012 Eugenol em juvenis de tilápia do Nilo:concentrações e administrações sucessivas. Boletim Instituto de Pesca, 38(1): 43-52.

EATON, A.D.; CLESCERI, L.S.; RICE, E.W.;GREENBERG, A.E. 2005 Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. Washington:American Public Health Association. 1325p.

Efficacy of benzocaine as an anesthetic in juvenile tambaqui Colossoma macropomum. Journal
of the World Aquaculture Society, 32(4): 426-431.

GUÉNETTE, S.A.; UHLAND, F.C.; HÉLIE, P.;BEAUDRY, F.; VACHON, P. 2007 Pharmacokinetics of eugenol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture, 266(1-4):262-265.

GONÇALVES, A.F.N.; SANTOS, E.C.C.;FERNANDES, J.B.K.; TAKAHASHI, L.S. 2008 Mentol e eugenol como substitutos da benzocaína na indução anestésica de juvenis de pacu. Acta Scientiarum: Animal Sciences, 30(3):339-344.

GRUSH, J.; NOAKES, DLG.; MOCCIA, RD. 2004 The efficacy of clove oil as an anesthetic for the
zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton). Zebrafish, 1(1):46-53.

HISANO, H.; ISHIKAWA, M.M.; FERREIRA, R.A.; BULGARELLI, A.L.A.; COSTA, T.R.; PÁDUA, S.B. 2008 Tempo de indução e de recuperação de dourado Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816),submetidos a diferentes concentrações de óleo de cravo Eugenia sp. Acta Scientiarum: Animal Sciences, 30(3): 303-307.

INOUE, L.A.K.A.; SANTOS-NETO, C.; MORAES, G.2003 Clove oil as anaesthetic for juveniles of
matrinxã Brycon cephalus (Gunther, 1869). Ciência Rural, 33(5): 943-947.

IWANA, G. e ACKERMAN, A. 1994 Anaesthetics. In:HOCHACHKA, P.; MOMMSEN, T. (eds) Analytical techniques in biochemistry and molecular biology of fishes. Amsterdan: Elsevier Science,p.1-5.

KEENE, J.L.; NOAKES, D.L.G.; MOCCIA, R.D. SOTO, C.G. 1998 The efficacy of clove oil as an
anaesthetic for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture Research, 29(2): 89-101.

PARK, M.O.; HUR, W.J.; IM, S.Y.; SEOL, D.W.;JINHWAN, L.; PARK, I.S. 2008 Anaesthetic efficacy and physiological responses to clove oil anaesthetized kelp grouper Epinephelus bruneus. Aquaculture Research, 39(8): 877-884.

PEREIRA-DA-SILVA, E.M.; OLIVEIRA, R.H.F.;RIBEIRO, M.A.R.; COPPOLA, M.P. 2009 Efeito anestésico do óleo de cravo em alevinos de lambari. Ciência Rural, 39(6): 1851-1856.

PÉREZ-GIANESELLI, M. e FLORES-QUINTANA, C. 2009 Anestésicos usados para minimizar strés en
peces en la piscicultura. In: TAVARES-DIAS, M.(ed.). Manejo e Sanidade de Peixes em Cultivo.
Macapá: Embrapa Amapá, p.248-269.

REID, S.G.; SUNDIN, L.; MILSON, W.K. 2006 The cardiorespiratory system in tropical fishes: structure, function and control. In: VAL, A.L.; ALMEIDA-VAL, V.M.F.; RANDALLa, D.J. The
physiology of tropical fishes. USA: Elsevier, p.225-275.

RIBEIRO, P.A.P.; MIRANDA-FILHO, K.C.;MELILLO-FILHO, R.; SANTOS, A.E.H.; SILVA, W.S.; RODRIGUES, L.A.; LUZ, R.K. 2013 Efeito anestésico do eugenol em juvenis de pacamã.
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 48(8): 1136-1139.

ROSS, L.G. e ROSS, B. 2008 Anaesthetic & sedative techniques for aquatic animals. Oxford: Blackwell Science. 240p.

ROTHWELL S.E.; BLACK, S.E.; JERRETT, A.R.;FORSTER, M.E. 2005 Cardiovascular changes and catecholamine release following anesthesia in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawy tscha)
and snapper (Pagrus auratus). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A: Molecular and
Integrative Physiology, 140(3): 289-298.

ROUBACH, R.; GOMES, L.C.; FONSECA, F.A.L.; VAL, A.L. 2005 Eugenol as na efficacious anaesthetic for tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier). Aquaculture Research, 36(11): 1056-1061.

SIMÕES, L.N.; GOMIDE, A.T.M.; ALMEIDA-VAL, V.M.F.; VAL, A.L.; GOMES, L.C. 2012 O uso de óleo de cravo como anestésico em juvenis avançados de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences, 34(2):175-181.

SLADKY, K.K.; SWANSON, C.R.; STOSKOPF, M.K.;LOOMIS, M.R.; LEWBART, G.A. 2001 Comparative efficacy of tricaine methanesulfonate and clove oil for use as anesthetics in red pacu (Piaractus brachypomus). American Journal of Veterinary Research, 62(2): 337-342.

SOTO, C. e BURHANUDDIN, G. 1995 Clove oil as a fish anaesthetic for measuring length and weight of rabbitfish (Siganus lineatus). Aquaculture, 136(1-2): 149-152.

VIDAL, L.V.O; ALBINATI, R.C.B.; ALBINATI, A.C.L.; MACÊDO, G.R. 2006 Utilização do eugenol como anestésico para o manejo de juvenis de pintado (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans).Acta Scientiarum: Biological Sciences, 28(3): 275-279.

VIDAL, L.V.O.; ALBINATI, R.C.B.; ALBINATI,A.C.L.; LIRA, A.D.; ALMEIDA, T.R.; SANTOS, G.B. 2008 Eugenol como anestésico para tilápia do Nilo. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 43(8):1069-1074.
How to Cite
FABREGAT, Thiago El Hadi Perez et al. The use of eugenol in bettas: a study of different concentrations and successive administrations. Boletim do Instituto de Pesca, [S.l.], v. 41, n. 2, p. 365 - 371, july 2018. ISSN 1678-2305. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 13 aug. 2022.
Short Communication